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Lesson 2, The Crucible

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This lesson is a follow up to Hook, The Crucible. It’s another 90 minute one. 30 minutes of this lesson are devoted to a classroom management issue: cell phones, because I teach The Crucible at the beginning of the school year. So if you’re reading this and you’re a teacher, you might want to re-use that 30 minute cell phone lesson at some other point. Or omit it. One more comment: I am using reading questions as part of this lesson — a strategy I am trying to use sparingly. However, last year I found that the narration part at the beginning of The Crucible was challenging for my high school juniors, and reading questions simply helps keep them on track. I would weight the warm up questions based on the essay, “The Great Fear” a lot heavier than the in-class reading questions, because students read this essay for HW and had to do a lot more heavy lifting themselves to answer those questions. More on grading below…

  1. Warm Up: Five recall questions on the essay, “The Great Fear,” read for HW. Students can refer to the essay as they answer the questions but are limited to the 15 minutes. (15 min)

According to the article, what was Senator McCarthy’s underlying motivation for going on a communist witch hunt? (10 points)

What were two actions that could cause an American citizen to be accused of being a communist? (10 points)

What groups were targeted the most by the anti-communist witch hunt? Why were these groups targeted? (10 points)

Summarize the situation involving Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in a few sentences.(1o points)

Was communism a real internal threat to America in the 1950s? (10 points)

2. Collect warm up and instruct students to take out their copy of The Crucible from underneath their chair. Instruct students to work with the person they are sitting next to to read pp. 3-8 and answer the following reading questions. Instruct students to refer to a bookmark with vocabulary definitions as they read. As students are working in pairs, write down the # of their book. (45 min)

  • Draw a small stick-figure sketch of the opening scene. What does it look like when the curtain rises?
  • Describe Reverend Parris in a complete sentence or two (or three) in your own words.
  • What are some things the town of Salem didn’t allow?
  • What does the author say is going to “feed the coming madness”?
  • “In unity still lay the best promise of safety.” Explain this sentence in your own words. What is the speaker trying to say about Salem?
  • Why do you think the Puritans’ view of the forest was so negative?
  • Why couldn’t Massachusetts “kill off the Puritans”? What helped their community succeed?
  • How does the narrator define a theocracy?
  • What was the purpose of this theocracy?
  • A paradox is a contradiction. Why was Salem’s theocracy contradictory or paradoxical? (What was hard to balance?)
  • According to the narrator, in what multiple ways did the witch hunts change the Salem community?
  • List 2-3 questions you have about what you have read so far. (If you don’t have any points of confusion, list 2-3 discussion questions).

I suggest weighting these questions 1 point each.

Give rational for cell phone mini-lesson.

3. Continuing to work in pairs, have students read these sample college level cell phone policies from college syllabi and make a list of consequences that could occur if they violated cell phone policies at the college level. (15 min)

4. Ask students to recall the definition of a “growth mindset.” Explain that applying the principles of mindfulness is a growth mindset approach to refraining from inappropriate cell phone use in class. Project the definition and explanation of mindfulness from Psychology Today and instruct students to take a few notes:

Mindfulness is a state of active, open attention on the present. When you’re mindful, you observe your thoughts and feelings from a distance, without judging them good or bad. Instead of letting your life pass you by, mindfulness means living in the moment and awakening to experience.

The cultivation of this moment-by-moment awareness of our surrounding environment is a practice that enables us to better cope with the difficult thoughts, feelings and sensations that cause us stress and anxiety in everyday life.

Rather than being led by emotions that are usually influenced by negative past experiences and fears of future occurrences, we are able to live with full attention and purpose in the present and deal with challenges in a calm, assertive way. We realize that our thoughts and emotions are transitional and need not define the next moment of our lives, or our potential for happiness and prosperity. This enables us to quickly escape the imprisonment of negative thought patterns and instead focus on positive emotions and increasing self-compassion and compassion for others.

5. Try a few mindfulness exercises as a class and encourage students to do these on their own when they have the urge to plug into their cell phone (15 minutes, #4 & #5)

One-Minute Breathing

  • This exercise can be done anywhere at any time, standing up or sitting down. All you have to do is focus on your breath for just one minute. Start by breathing in and out slowly, holding your breath for a count of six once you’ve inhaled. Then breathe out slowly, letting the breath flow effortlessly out back into the atmosphere.
  • Naturally your mind will try and wander amidst the valleys of its thoughts. But simply notice these thoughts, let them be as they are and return to watching your breath. Purposefully watch your breath with your senses as it enters your body and fills you with life, and then watch it work its way up and out of your body as the energy dissipates into the universe.
  • If you’re someone who thought they’d never be able to meditate, guess what? You’re half way there already! If you enjoyed one minute of this mind-calming exercise, why not try two or three?

Mindful Observation

  • This exercise is simple but incredibly powerful. It is designed to connect us with the beauty of the natural environment, which is easily missed when we’re rushing around in the car or hopping on and off trains on the way to work.
  • Pick something within your immediate environment and focus on watching it for a minute or two. This could be a painting, a photograph, a quote on the wall…
  • Don’t do anything except notice the thing you are looking at. But really notice it. Look at it as if you are seeing it for the first time.
  • Visually explore every aspect of this glorious gift of the space you are in. Allow yourself to be consumed by its presence and possibilities. Allow your soul to connect with its role and purpose in the world. Allow yourself to purposefully notice and just “be.”

Touch Points

  • This exercise is designed to make us appreciate our lives by slowing the pace. This opens the gate to purer awareness and the ability to truly rest in the moment for a while.
  • Think of something that happens every day more than once. Something you take for granted, like opening a door for example. At the very moment you touch the doorknob to open the door, allow yourself to be completely mindful of where you are, how you feel and what you are doing. Similarly, the moment you open your computer to start work, take a moment to appreciate the hands that let you do this, and the brain that will help you use the computer.
  • The cues don’t have to be physical ones. It could be that every time you think something negative you take a mindful moment to release the negative thought, or it could be that every time you smell food you take a mindful moment to rest in the appreciation of having food to eat. Choose a touch point that resonates with you today. Instead of going through the motions on autopilot, stop and stay in the moment for a while and rest in the awareness of this blessed daily activity.

Mindful Listening

  • This exercise is designed to open your ears to sound in a non-judgmental way. So much of what we see and hear on a daily basis is influenced by thoughts of past experiences. Mindful listening helps us leave the past where it is and come into a neutral, present awareness.
  • Take a moment to simply listen to the sounds in your environment. Don’t try and determine the origin or type of sounds you hear, just listen and absorb the experience and let it resonate with your being. If you recognize the sound, then label it with what you know it to be and move on, allowing your ears to latch onto new sounds that come into your awareness.

Fully Experience a Regular Routine

  • The intention of this exercise is to cultivate contentedness in the moment, rather than finding yourself caught up in that familiar feeling of wanting something to end so that you can get on to doing something else. It might even make you enjoy some of those boring daily chores too!
  • Take a regular routine that you find yourself “just doing” without really noticing your actions. For example, when cleaning your house, pay attention to every detail of the activity.
  • Rather than treat this as a regular chore, create an entirely new experience by noticing every aspect of your actions.  Feel and become the motion of sweeping the floor, notice the muscles you use when scrubbing the dishes, observe the formation of dirt on the windows and see if you can create a more efficient way of removing it. Be creative and find new experiences within this familiar routine.
  • Don’t labour through thinking about the finish line, become aware of every step and enjoy each step of progress. Take the activity beyond a routine by merging with it physically, mentally and spiritually.

A Game of Fives

  • In this mindfulness exercise, all you have to do is notice five things in your day that usually go unnoticed and unappreciated. These can be things you hear, smell, feel or see. For example, you might see the walls of your front room every day, you might hear the birds in the tree outside in the morning, you might feel the touch of clothes on your skin as you walk to work, you might smell the flowers in the park on a summer’s afternoon, but are you truly appreciating these things and the connections they have with your life and the world at large?
  • Are you aware of how these things really benefit your life and the lives of others?
  • Do you really know what these things look and sound like?
  • Have you ever stopped to notice their finer, more intricate details?
  • Have you ever thought about what life might be like without these things?
  • Have you ever sat down and thought about how amazing these things are?
  • Let your creative mind explore the wonder, impact and possibilities these usually unnoticed things have on your life. Allow yourself to fall awake into the world for a while and fully experience the environment that encapsulates your daily routine.

 

Lesson Plan for “Growth Mindset”

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I’m in the middle of Salman Rushdie’s new novel, Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights because I’ll literally read ANYthing written by this man. I picked up a copy at an old haunt in Lincoln Square (Chicago) earlier this summer. So much nostalgia for The Book Cellar

Anyway, I’m about halfway through, and I confess I’ve lost interest. My mind is half in school mode already, and so I hit pause on Rushdie and finally got around to reading Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.

The central idea of this book sounds corny at a surface level, and to extent, the book is corny and a little repetitive. But it’s also a tremendously powerful concept: the idea that our personalities and IQs, our abilities, and for that matter all aspects of our lives, are in a state of ongoing development. Viewing ourselves, our lives, OTHERS, and the world in a constant state of growth has profound implications for how we seek and obtain happiness, overcome depression, lead, parent, teach, and so much more.

Instead of presenting you with my usual “book review” format of commentary embedded in summary, I’ve decided to post my during reading notes to pique your curiosity as well as a lesson plan I’ve created about growth mindsets versus fixed mindsets for high school students as a way to build a positive classroom culture in the beginning of the school year.

Thoughts?

Reading Notes

Believing that your qualities are carved in stone — the fixed mindset — creates an urgency to prove yourself over and over

Did you know that Darwin and Tolstoy were considered ordinary children?

Why look for friends or partners who will just shore up your self-esteem instead of ones who will also challenge you to grow?

Howard Gardner, in his book Extraordinary Minds, concluded that exceptional individuals have a “special talent for identifying their own strengths and weaknesses.” It’s interesting that those with the growth mindset seem to have that talent.

  • p. 12 — “Grow Your Mindset”
  • Developing yourself versus validating yourself

Benjamin Barber, an eminent sociologist, once said, “I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures… I divide the world into the learners and nonlearners”

  • CEO disease
  • Growth mindset — teacher versus student

When do people with the fixed mindset thrive? When things are safely within their grasp. If things get too challenging — when they’re not feeling smart or talented — they lose interest.

  • When do you feel smart?
  • p. 23, Marina Semyonova

Becoming is better than being

When [Nasa was] soliciting applications for astronauts, they rejected people with pure histories of success and instead selected people who had had significant failures and bounced back from them

The scariest thought, which I rarely entertained, was the possibility of being ordinary. This kind of thinking led me to need constant validation.

If you’re somebody when you’re successful, what are you when you’re unsuccessful?

  • p. 72, effort praise versus ability praise

What’s so alarming is that we took ordinary children and made them into liars, simply by telling them they were smart.

Prejudice is a deeply ingrained societal problem, and I do not want to blame the victims of it. I am simply saying that a growth mindset helps people to see prejudice for what it is — someone else’s view of them — and to confront it with their confidence and abilities intact.

  • Girls grow up being praised, boys grow up being scolded, boys learn to dismiss outside criticism and girls learn to internalize it
  • p. 80-81 activities
  • Not knowing how to fail, p. 82
  • Do you know how to fail?
  • What is success? p. 98-99
  • What is failure? p. 99-100
  • What is something in an ideal world you’d love to do but you don’t consider yourself naturally good at?
  • Relationships and fixed mindset

You can believe that your qualities are fixed, your partner’s qualities are fixed, and the relationship’s qualities are fixed — that it’s inherently good or bad, meant-to-be or not meant-to-be. Now all of these things are up for judgment.

It’s been said that Dorothy DeLay was an extraordinary teacher because she was not interested in teaching. She was interested in learning

Lesson Plan for Growth Mindset
High School Juniors and Seniors
(About 90 minutes)

Pass around Mindset book and tell students that you recently read it over the summer. Introduce the book, e.g.: The book focuses on how having a “growth mindset” versus a “fixed mindset,” two terms we’ll eventually define in class today. These ideas can affect your relationships, your business, your education, your symptoms of depression, many facets of your life. We are striving to build a “growth mindset” as we prepare to deal with the challenges of a new school year. (3 min)

The following is a list of questions that came to mind as I was reading the book over the summer. Read all eight questions and then pick the one you want to free-write on for ten minutes. If you finish your thoughts on one question, move to another question. You should be writing for ten minutes. (10 min)

  1. What are the consequences of thinking that your intelligence or personality is something you can develop, as opposed to something that is a fixed, deep-seated trait?
  2. Can anyone learn to be a good artist?
  3. What do you think our society values more? Effort or ability?
  4. What is the best way to praise a child?
  5. What qualities are you looking for in a life partner? In your friends?
  6. Is it scary to be ordinary? Why or why not?
  7. How do you define success in life? In school? How do you define failure in life? In school?
  8. If you’re “somebody” when you’re successful, what are you when you’re unsuccessful?

Stop writing — select students at random with popsicle sticks to share out responses — type into projector any comments directly related to growth or fixed mindset

Explain how each question relates to growth or fixed mindset. Example: #4, related to how we respond to feedback, #5, how to build healthy relationships, #2, how much of who we are is “nature” versus “nurture,” determined by genetics and pre-ordained ability versus environment and attitude (15-20 min)

Make a t-chart, fixed mindset on one side, growth mindset on another (3 min)

Project 10 scenarios and have students put them into each category into their t-charts. They are guessing according to what they think a fixed mindset is and a growth mindset is. Students can abbreviate the wording of scenarios to make the writing process less tedious.  (10 min)

Scenarios

1. An acquaintance says something mean about you on social media so you “throw shade” about that person on your own social media account.
2. An important criteria for your ideal life partner is that he or she challenges you.
3. You ace your math test and your teacher says, “Congrats, [insert name], you’re such a math wiz!”
4. You’re incredibly shy so you sign up for an improv class to come out of your shell.
5. You tend to procrastinate when you’re struggling in a class because if you fail, at least you didn’t try that hard.
6. A job application asks you to write about your biggest failure and how you bounced back.
7. You find it easy to objectively identify your own strengths and weaknesses.
8. A criteria for a good teacher is that they work to make you feel smart.
9. Healthy relationships — romantic and platonic — require work.
10. Some people just don’t have what it takes to be a performer.

Teacher tells students what numbers go in which category, students check their charts to see if they are “right” (5 min)

Discuss why given answers are “right,” students have the opportunity to question or challenge as teacher explains more about fixed versus growth mindset (10 min)

Based on discussion above, students work in pairs to define “fixed mindset” and “growth mindset” (5 min)

Teacher selects pairs (popsicle sticks) to share their definitions, offers guidance on how to blend definitions into one class definition for both “growth mindset” and “fixed mindset” (10 min)

Teacher gives instructions: Brainstorm a list of 10 common frustrating scenarios you experience as a student/at school and concrete ways you can approach that scenario with a growth mindset this year (t-chart format)

Teacher models 5 examples from their own t-chart (7 min)

Scenario #1: Lack of adequate access to technology (limited computer carts, computer labs)

Growth Mindset Response: Launch a crowdfunding website to raise money for additional chromebooks for the English department, view it as an opportunity to gain fundraising skills and build enthusiasm for next school year

Scenario #2: Eating in class leads to increased requests to leave the room for drink and bathroom breaks, and too many students don’t pick up after themselves

Growth Mindset Response: Put in the time to enforce the “no-food rule” — it’s worth it — and model all food rules yourself

Scenario #3: Too many students are on their cell phones while you’re teaching

Growth Mindset Response: Teach students about the philosophy of mindfulness, show students cell phone policies on college syllabi, teach students about growth mindsets, ask students to reflect on how they’re using their cell phones in class on a written self-assessment, make a poster reminding students how they can use their cell phones for learning, in addition to taking phones away when necessary

Scenario #4: The “amazing” lesson you planned didn’t engage as many students as you hoped.

Growth Mindset Response: View this “failure” as valuable information. Was it how you executed the lesson? Was it how you designed the lesson? Ask your students for direct feedback. Talk to your co-workers. Keep organized digital versions of your lesson plans so you can keep what works, and change what doesn’t.

Scenario #5: Too many students don’t show up with a pencil and then steal yours.

Growth Mindset Response: Over the summer, purchase a glue gun, some fake flowers, and a set of ballpoint pens. Make “flower pens” so your students will think twice about walking out with your pens — and so they’ll have something to write with if they forget their pencil.

Students work on scenarios independently (15 min)
Teacher collects

Homework assignment: Make a list of 5-10 people you admire. Choose one to focus on. Research this person’s experience with failure, either in the form of an interview (if it’s someone you know) or online research, if it’s someone in the public domain. Summarize your findings in a few paragraphs (cite your sources) and identify whether this person has a growth or fixed mindset, in your opinion.

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