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Message from the Heart

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All day last Wednesday, I felt a tightness and an ache in my chest every time I inhaled. It took about eight hours of chest pains for me to text my doctor friend and ask her if needed to do something. Her answer was yes, which led to a few hours in the ER and a battery of tests. In the meantime, I typed and planned and did my thing with my MacBook:

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Then they gave me a prescription dose of Tylenol and diagnosed me with muscle pain and sent me home. 

All this brings me to Jesus Calling: Devotions for Every Day of the Year by Sarah Young. 

I have a hard time with prayer. And getting myself to church, to be honest. Last fall, I recently joined the choir at our new church in St. Louis in large part because I needed to sing and be part of the service to show up. Sometimes I still don’t show up. At the same time, I’m an emotional, spiritual person for whom there are moments when I feel God’s presence so closely that I tear up and I can’t explain why. I tend to believe that it’s grace, and not weakness, that moves me to tears at random moments of my life. We think by feeling, my favorite poem reads. 

With all my feelings, I have mixed feelings about the Catholic liturgy through which I worship every week. The repetition and the deep traditions are affirming, grounding, comforting… But they can have the effect of dulling the senses, for me. 

The unique quality of this devotional is that it mixes scripture with the firm, loving, generous voice of Jesus as author Sarah Young imagines Jesus would speak to us. This approach goes a long way to strengthen my prayer life, helping me to break through the silence that I sometimes feel on the opposite end of my petitions. 

It seems to be a universal experience that has something to do with free will: the reality that God — the least controlling, nagging teacher — chooses to speak to us through the quiet, persistent voice of our own conscience and inner moral compass. Right now my husband Padraic is reading Silence (recently turned into a movie), about how Spanish priests grappled with their perceived silence of God in an inhospitable, persecutory Japan. 

So the silence is universal, and perhaps, meaningful; but it’s also worthwhile, as Jesus Calling does for me, to imagine the voice on the other side. I especially connected to this reading from April 1st about “not making an idol of your to-do list.” This is something I consistently do, separating me in some, gradual, corrosive way, from the people I love and the God who loves me so much more than I can imagine: 

I am calling you to a life of constant communion with me. Basic training includes learning to live above your circumstances, even while interacting on that cluttered plane of life. You yearn for a simplified lifestyle, so that your communication with Me can be uninterrupted. But I challenge you to relinquish the fantasy of an uncluttered world. Accept each day just as it comes, and find Me in the midst of it all.

Talk with Me about every aspect of your day, including your feelings. Remember that your ultimate goal is not to control or fix everything around you; it is to keep communing with Me. A successful day is one in which you have stayed in touch with Me, even if many things remain undone at the end of the day. Do not let your to-do list (written or mental) become an idol directing your life. Instead, ask My Spirit to guide you moment by moment. He will keep you close to me.

— 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Proverbs 3:6

How do you break the silence?

The Meaning of Michelle

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My response to the tornado of events precipitated by the Donald Trump administration has been one of occasional action and full-fledged nostalgia.

On the morning of inauguration day, I changed my Facebook cover photo to a picture of my friend Allison and me on a crowded, neon-lit Michigan Avenue the night Barack Obama was elected. We were wearing Yes We Can Change shirts featuring a tight-lipped, determined Barack Obama, and we held each other with glowing, teethy smiles.

I re-watched YouTube videos of Barack Obama casually chuckling at the potential reality of Donald Trump becoming president, when asked on CBSN one year ago. I indulged in a second viewing of President Obama roasting Donald Trump at a White House Correspondents’ Dinner. I pinned images of Michelle in glamorous, curve-hugging, shoulder-draping gowns at state dinners. 

Then I called and tweeted some congress people, donated some money to the ACLU, patted myself on the back, and visited Amazon to order The Meaning of Michelle, a series of personal essays about Michelle Obama’s legacy.

The first essay I read was “She Loves Herself When She Is Laughing: Michelle Obama, Taking Down a Stereotype and Co-Creating a Presidency,” by Rebecca Carroll. Having just finished Their Eyes Were Watching God with my American Lit class, I was curious about the comparison Carroll makes between Obama and Zora Neale Hurston.

Carroll writes that Michelle is the “embodiment of what black American writer Zora Neale Hurston meant when she wrote: ‘I love myself when I am laughing, and then again when I am looking mean and impressive.’” I think what she means is that both Michelle and Zora are/were both resolutely themselves in the public eye, which, as Carroll writes, was “no small thing for a Black woman in the 1930s, and sadly… no small thing for a Black woman in the 2000s either.” Carroll argues that Barack Obama, struggling to find his place as a biracial black man with an unconventional upbringing, was attracted to Michelle for the very reason that she was grounded in her blackness, and fully immersed in it. Carroll identifies with the former President’s longing for this grounding partner, growing up as a “Black adoptee in a white family.”

In “Lady O and King Bey,” Brittney Cooper writes of the “mutual girl crush that Michelle Obama and Beyoncé share.” Cooper points that Michelle, as First Lady, had an opportunity to reclaim something that black women are often denied:

“In a world in which Black women were always treated as women but never as ladies, a Black woman becoming the icon of American ladyhood is a triumph of the hopes and dreams of all those race ladies of old.”

Given the significance of Michelle Obama’s ladyhood, her public admiration of Beyoncé implies that she also lays claim to another version of black womanhood, one characterized by body confidence and sex appeal, and also a taking of pleasure in “flouting the rules of social propriety.”

For example, when Beyoncé performed “Formation” for the 2016 Super Bowl, critiquing “anti-Black state violence” and wearing costumes with a sartorial nod to the Black Panther Movement, Michelle told Gayle King in an interview, “’I care deeply about the Halftime Show. I hope Beyoncé likes what I have on’ [She] was dressed in a black blouse with black slacks.”

Super Bowl aside, I can imagine there have been many times Michelle may have wanted to channel Beyoncé in “flouting the rules of social propriety.” For example, when “Representative Jim Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin remarked that Michelle Obama had a ‘big butt,’ and thus no business leading the Let’s Move! Campaign,” as Cooper writes. In explaining Michelle Obama’s need for Beyoncé, Cooper writes that

“sometimes ratchet is a more appropriate register in which to check your haters than respectability will ever be. But overtly ratchet Mrs. Obama simply cannot be. Beyoncé can be as ratchet as she wants to be though, and in this, I think the First Lady finds a place to let her hair down and put her middle fingers up.”

According to Cooper, the friendship between Michelle Obama and Beyoncé is both remarkable and “regular as rain,” or rather, “reign.” Their friendship is a testament to the fact that:

“The U.S. is no nation for Black women. It is too limited a container for the magic we bring. And because the American national imaginary is built on the most limited and stingy ideas about who Black women get to be, when we are called to navigate the terrain of racial representation as public figures, many sisters return to the most basic truth we have – we need each other to survive.”

In “Becoming the Wife,” Cathi Hanauer identifies with Michelle’s willingness to set aside a prestigious career to become “Mom-in-Chief.” When Hanauer met her husband, she was an established writer looking to do “something more meaningful” by applying to an MFA program. Her would-be husband was a struggling writer working odd jobs as a ski instructor and a janitor. He eventually became the editor of The New York Times’s Modern Love column, a wild success, as Hanauer gradually increased her role as primary parent and homemaker.

In Michelle Obama’s case, as is widely known, she was Barack Obama’s mentor before she became his helpmate. After she married Obama in 1992, they lived “separate professional lives”… up to a point. As Hanauer writes,

“What did change, work-wise, for Michelle – as it did for me, and as it does for so many college-educated women, particularly once children are involved – is that we both reached a point in our lives and marriages when we agreed to become… The Wife – as our husbands took on the more important and lucrative work role. We did this for the greater good of our marriages, our families, and in Michelle’s case, the world; and maybe even, as mothers, for ourselves. Michelle became Mrs. President. And I became Mrs. Modern Love.”

There’s something refreshingly real about the way that Hanauer frames the choice to become the wife, the helpmate once children enter the picture – that it’s a choice borne out of practicality, human limitations, a humility in not demanding oneself to be everything to everybody. This willingness to inhabit a prescribed role, and a traditional, non-glamorous one at that, seems like a matter of maturing for the younger versions of Michelle and Cathi, embarking solo on their careers with Plans – at once laser-sharp and limitless.

When I mentioned this essay to my husband, he said that the notion of success, in his view, has evolved from sacrifice to achievement. We used to judge women, and to an extent, men, by how much they had sacrificed for others, whereas we judge them now by their individual solo accomplishments. I think one of the reasons Michelle Obama is so popular is precisely owing to the amount and quality of her sacrifice, for her children, for her husband, for her willingness to make her motherhood and wifehood public, assuming a role that seems both demanding and tedious. This feeling of admiration and gratitude doesn’t confer as easily onto Barack Obama, as his public sacrifices seem tied up with his personal ambitions.

And then, in spite of our admiration, there’s a collective instinct to see Michelle pursue her ambitions, full-force. Ironically, perhaps, this is how Hanauer ends her laudatory essay on becoming the wife:

“I can’t wait to see what she does next. And what she does after that, when her children are grown and she can focus with far fewer distractions on her career. She has said she’ll never run for president herself. To that, I say: Never say never, Michelle. Let’s just see where we all are a decade from now.”

Lesson Plan, During Reading Activities

George Thomas Open book test. Get the point? CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Here’s a lesson plan for American Literature, The Handmaid’s Tale. It’s pretty straightforward, but it may be useful to other teachers in terms of structuring a during reading activity while reading any novel.

Warm Up: Finding/Collecting HW & Missing Work (5 min)

Project onto the board:

  • Please take out your “What’s In a Name?” Project, worth 50 points
  • The following people are missing their Puritanism notes (list names)
  • The following people are missing their chapters 29-30 questions (list names)
  • The following people are missing their chapters 31-32 questions (list names)

Discussion of “What’s In a Name Project?” (10 min) 15 total

Project onto the board:

  • What does the word connotation mean again?
  • Round robin à briefly share the connotations of your name, what you learned about the meaning of your name

Review of Chapters 29-32 (10 min) 20 total 

  • Divide the class into four sections and have each section come up with a one-sentence summary for each of the four chapters: 29, 30, 31, 32. (5 min)
  • Then share the one-sentence summaries and type onto the projector (5 min)

During Reading Instructions, Chapters 33-34 (5 min) 25 total

Project onto the board:

For each chapter, work with a partner to write:

  • 3 important things that you learned in that chapter
  • 2 things that interested you about that chapter, that you’d like to learn more about
  • 1 thing you have a question about in that chapter

 Be prepared to discuss your 3-2-1 with the class.

Read Chapter 33 — students read along to pre-recorded voice of teacher reading aloud, or can choose to put headphones in and read at their own pace (11 min) 35 total

Work with partner on 3-2-1 (10 min) 45 total

Read Chapter 34 — students read along to pre-recorded voice of teacher reading aloud, or can choose to put headphones in and read at their own pace (10 min) 55 total

 Work with partner on 3-2-1 (10 min) 65 total

Circle up and discuss 3-2-1 (25 min) 90 total

 

 

 

Building, Literally and Figuratively

My dad wrote this article the other day and it moved me. I want to share it with you:

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I usually write about leadership and business issues in the design and construction industry. Today, however, it’s hard to avoid commenting on public debates that challenge us in America and around the world. Some of them are about building, literally and figuratively.

Architects love walls. They’re fundamental in what we do: outside, inside, tall, short, transparent, opaque. They shelter us from heat, cold, and rain, separate things that need privacy within buildings, and provide all kinds of opportunities for interesting design statements. They hold things up. They’re constructive and valuable.

Walls in the political sense have a less useful, more insidious meaning. We’ve become obsessed with defining ourselves, and dividing ourselves, from people and ideas that seem threatening. Different. Foreign – even in our own communities.

For example, my home town has 91 municipalities in a single urban county. They have interesting historical roots, but today they often consume our energy as people compete with each other, locally, rather than addressing the real competition for talent and investment that’s half a world away. It’s no surprise that the region isn’t growing.

On a national level the divides between backgrounds, races, and ideologies have never been sharper in my lifetime. We see threats all around us and are quick to create walls between us and “them” – the “other.” We create some of those walls with language and behavior, and in some cases they’re physical – like the idea of a kind of medieval barrier against our neighboring countries. We’re all trying to be architects now.

The idea of protective walls is certainly not new. We all know about the Wall of Jericho, the Great Wall of China, the walls and moats fortifying human settlements from hostile forces through the ages. The walls repelled the attackers, at least for a period of time, when the assault was based on numbers and brute force. That notion is quaint but irrelevant in our age of instant communication and global travel. We have strong national values but multi-national populations in much of the world.

I was reminded of the photo above, which I took on a London street in 1978. The subject is an immigrant, perhaps from Pakistan or India, holding a bright red can of Coke and with a bright yellow paperback copy of To Kill a Mockingbird in his jacket pocket. I think I was struck by those colors, which worked well with my Kodachrome slide film. Only later did I think about the meaning of the image, with its convergence of contrasts between nationalities in England, races in 20th-century America, and the commercial symbols that transcend them all. Who knows what real barriers this gentleman had overcome and has faced since?

This week I had two Uber drivers on a trip to Dallas. The first was from Iran, a member of the Baha’i faith, who talked freely about his new political and religious freedom. The second was from Iraq; he apologized for his poor English but expressed pride that his three young children spoke perfect English and were teaching him. Both drivers expressed great appreciation for their opportunities in America. They love our country. Are they “us,” or “them”?

In The Language of Postmodern Architecture, Charles Jencks declared that modern architecture died with demolition of the Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis. In the same vein, perhaps we should hope that Ronald Reagan set the stage for a new generation with one of the best-known challenges of the last century: “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down that wall!” It worked. We should do as well.

A Poem for Salman Rushdie’s New Novel

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I just finished Salman Rushdie’s latest, Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights. Here’s a brief summary of the book’s premise, borrowed from The New York Times book review:

The central character of Rushdie’s new novel… is…a man who gets cursed and gets blamed for it. Geronimo Manezes, a Mumbai-born gardener now living in New York, has begun to levitate. This isn’t the wish fulfillment of a flying dream; it threatens his livelihood and brings the increasing hostility of strangers. “Why do you imagine I consider my condition an improvement? He wanted to cry out. Why, when it has ruined my life and I fear it may bring about my early death?”

But Geronimo’s predicament is not an isolated case. It foreshadows an era of “strangenesses,” where the “laws which had long been accepted as the governing principles of reality had collapsed.” The strangenesses — some meteorological, some natural disasters, some simply miraculous — are the prelude to a full-blown invasion of the human world by malevolent spirits from another dimension.

It turns out that all four evil jinn, Zabardast, Zumurrud, Ra’im Blood-Drinker and Shining Ruby, have broken through the wormholes separating the world from Fairyland and are bent on causing havoc in the 21st century. The only power that can stop them is a nice female jinnia called Dunia and her human descendants: Geronimo Manezes, the British composer Hugo Casterbridge, the young Indian-American graphic novelist Jimmy Kapoor and a femme fatale called Teresa Saca. If Dunia can gather them up in time and awaken them to the power of their jinni nature, humanity might have a chance against the forces of darkness. “The seals between the Two Worlds are broken and dark jinn ride,” she tells Geronimo. “Your world is in danger and because my children are everywhere I am protecting it. I’m bringing them together, and together we will fight back.”

It certainly wasn’t my favorite Rushdie novel. The NY Times review is pretty critical, and I agree with its perspective. Reviewer Marcel Theroux notes that Rushdie’s “capcaiousness” and “breadth” as a writer/enchanter is a distinctive feature of his style and something to be celebrated… when “there’s been some compelling principle at work.” As Theroux puts it,

“Complaining that Rushdie’s not a naturalistic writer is like criticizing kimchi for its cabbagey funk.”

And I love Rushdie’s funk. It’s why I gravitate toward everything he writes. As for this novel, though, I’ll quote Theroux again:

“Behind its glittery encrustations, the plot resembles a bare outline for a movie about superheroes. There’s a war between worlds, lightning comes out of people’s fingertips and it all culminates in a blockbuster showdown between the forces of good and evil.”

Still, I am drawn to the “nice” jinnia, Dunia, who is enamored with the human world. I am fascinated with the contrast between capricious beings made of smoke and fire versus plodding, helpless humans. In the book, Dunia produces a line of half-jinn, half-human descendants, and the line they walk between their human natures and their jinn natures is fodder for us all. It inspired me to think about the “smoke and fire” lurking in myself, and my human company. I jot this poem down this morning. When I refer to “smoke and fire,” I think I’m referring to the ways in which our human limitations give way, the ways in which we surprise ourselves, transcending our human natures and tapping into something more powerful.

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Smoke and Fire

Smoke and fire:
You address me, “Beauty,”
You nick-named my stomach years ago
At a wedding, my arms are wrapped around you
“Python arms” you dub the photo
Then you say, “Hey Beauty, come here”
Insults, terms of endearment,
From You,
They both land lightly,
Almost to lift me up.

Smoke and fire:
I chased you out of the building
Clear sky, hot pavement
You were running for your life
Now we meet again in August
Your trusting smile,
signing your letter “yours truly”
“I’m ready to step up my game this year”

Smoke and fire:
Skin so thin that a hang nail
Threatens hospital beds and IVs
Skin so thick all the same
You weather your version of chronic pain
Far more graciously than me
And so I confide in you, and worry with you
Even when you’re the one hurting

Smoke and fire:
How many times have I rubbed
salt in your wounds
And you’ve called me back
Invited me over
Given me something from your closet,
Your fridge
“I’m so happy to see you,” you always say.

Smoke and fire:
You used to bribe me to type your papers
Your eyes were bloodshot as you
teased me about my first boyfriend
I bought you beer when I visited you at school
even though I was the younger one
Now you grip your newborn
like a football, easy
You’re well-versed in car seats
and choking hazards
And sleep schedules

Smoke and fire:
This life is muddy for you
Thick, brown, halting
Leaves traces of dirt on your shoes
Wherever you go
And yet you keep going,
So kind
Along your way

If only I could rub the magic lamp
Get a fat, blue little jinn
To fight your demons for you
Smoke and fire-like

Instead, I hold onto the traces
Of smoke
Of fire
inside these
soft,
beating
human hearts.

 

Hook, The Crucible

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This lesson is for the beginning of the second week of my school year. It’s the “hook” to get students interested in the play, The Crucible. (The first week of school will be spent building rapport, practicing policies and procedures, including this lesson on Growth vs. Fixed Mindset).  I introduced the book this way last year, and for the most part it was successful… except for one student whose phone I took away in the first couple days of school and who proceeded to write that I was her personal crucible. Yup, except for that 🙂 I’ve made a few tweaks to the order of things. If you’re interested in a copy of the PowerPoint I use, comment or contact me at gingerodonnell.com.  This lesson runs about 90 minutes.

 

  1. Students google the definition of the word, crucible. There are multiple definitions. They should write all of the definitions. (5 min)
  2. As a class, analyze the different definitions. How are they connected? How can we take these different, connected definitions and create a new definition in our own words? (5 min)
  3. Tell students that they will write a paragraph (or more) about a personal crucible they have experienced, or someone they are close to has experienced, based on the definition of crucible we have created. Model this first by reading your own (this activity continues to build rapport in the beginning of the year) — I am planning to write about my sister-in-law’s first few months on a remote Pacific island in the Peace Corps (also a convenient way to plant the Peace Corps seed in my students’ minds). (15 min)
  4. Students pair up with the person sitting next to them (all my classes have seating charts, alphabetical order in the beginning of the year) and share what they wrote. (7 min)
  5. Call on four partners to share out with the class what their partner wrote. In the beginning of the year, popsicle sticks come in handy to randomly select sharers, or you can take volunteers if students are eager to share. (10 min)
  6. Explain to students that there are really two crucibles taking place in the play, The Crucible: one that forms the action of the plot, and one that is subtext. Project the definition of subtext on the board and have students write it down: an underlying meaning in a literary or dramatic work, sub meaning under, text meaning text, in other words, the meaning you find when you read between the lines. 
  7. Define Crucible #1 in The Crucible: a bunch of teenage girls and older women are falsely accused of witchcraft and the justice system doesn’t protect them. 
  8. Explain to students that a mnemonic device helps you remember something. In this case, we’re using the song “Witchy Woman” by the Eagles to remember Crucible #1 that we just defined. Play the song and provide students with a copy of the lyrics, either on the projector or on a handout.

“Witchy Woman”
The Eagles 1970s

Raven hair and ruby lips
sparks fly from her finger tips
Echoed voices in the night
she’s a restless spirit on an endless flight
wooo hooo witchy woman, see how
high she flies
woo hoo witchy woman she got
the moon in her eye
She held me spellbound in the night
dancing shadows and firelight
crazy laughter in another
room and she drove herself to madness
with a silver spoon
woo hoo witchy woman see how high she flies
woo hoo witchy woman she got the moon in her eye
Well I know you want a lover,
let me tell your brother, she’s been sleeping
in the Devil’s bed.
And there’s some rumors going round
someone’s underground
she can rock you in the nighttime
’til your skin turns red
woo hoo witchy woman
see how high she flies
woo hoo witchy woman
she got the moon in her eye

9. Define Crucible #2 (Subtext): in the 1950s, there was a witch hunt led by Senator Joseph McCarthy to hunt down communists. Professors and leaders in higher education, Hollywood, theatre, radio, and television were especially targeted. In this situation, too, the justice system didn’t protect them. 

10. Play “Get That Communist Joe” to remember Crucible #2. (20 min)

“Get That Communist, Joe”
The Kavaliers 1954

Joe, come here a minute
I get a red hot tip for you, Joe

See that guy with the red suspenders
Driving that car with the bright red fenders
I know he’s one of those heavy spenders
Get that Communist Joe

He’s fillin’ my gal with propaganda
And I’m scared she will meander
Don’t want to take a chance that he’ll land her
Get that Communist Joe

He’s a most revolting character
And the fellas hate him so
But with the girls this character
Is a Comrade Romeo

Since my love he’s sabotaging
And the law he has been dodging
Give him what he deserves, jailhouse lodging
Get that Communist Joe (Get that Shmo, Joe)

11. Students take notes on 12 PowerPoint slides, expounding on four key points (30 min)

  • Puritanism
  • Witchcraft
  • McCarthyism
  • Arthur Miller

12. HW: Read “The Great Fear” by J. Ronald Oakley (about 20 pages), a “related reading” from The Crucible and Related Readings; provide students with a bookmark defining target vocabulary words as they read and inform them that there will be a brief 5 question reading quiz next class

Final Project, The Crucible

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I am reworking the final project for The Crucible. Last year I had my students write a monologue loosely based on one of the characters but they weren’t as interested in writing, much less performing, monologues as I had anticipated. I also like that this project is a bit more rigorous, requiring more writing, research, and MLA formatting. The idea came to me when reading the “related readings” in this version of The Crucible, specifically the essay “Guilt” by Clifford Lindsey Alderman. Most of all, I hope that the choices embedded in the research portion give my students an opportunity to explore issues of social justice that they are passionate about. I know The Crucible is a widely taught text in American high schools, so maybe this assignment idea will serve as “food for thought” for fellow educators.

  • Goal: Respond to the question, How do individuals and societies recover and rebuild following major injustices?
  • Role: Freelance contributor to a magazine.
  • Audience: Peers in American Lit I class via Socratic seminar; possibly wider members of school community if paper highlights can be shared on class website.
  • Situation: An opportunity to connect history to contemporary society, educating readers about the aftermath of the Salem witch trials and connecting this to the aftermath of current injustices across America and the globe.
  • Product: A 5 page paper (see details below).

Required Components of Paper

  1. Summarize how different members of the Salem community coped with their guilt once the witch trials were widely believed to be a grave injustice, as explained in the essay, “Guilt,” by Clifford Lindsey Alderman, contained in The Crucible and Related Readings
  2. Choose a major injustice in contemporary society specifically where innocents have died at the hands of an individual, a government, or some other organization:

The death penalty executed against an innocent person
Instances of police brutality or civilian assaults against police
Residents of the Middle East who have been killed by US drone attacks
Victims of terrorist attacks
Victims of violence during the Arab Spring
Residents of Syria dying at the hands of the Assad regime
The list goes on…

3. Research and report, how did different members of the local, national, and global, and virtual (internet) community respond in the aftermath of these unjust deaths?

4. Argue, in what ways was the local, national, global, or virtual (internet) response effective? In what ways was it ineffective?

5. Argue, what specific action needs to be taken to recover from these unjust deaths at at an individual level? A local level? A virtual (internet) level? A national level? A global level? (Some of these “levels” may overlap)

6. Cite your sources in MLA format, both in-text citations and a Works Cited page

RUBRIC: _____/120
(Each of 6 categories worth up to 20 points)

  Ideas Organization Conventions Word Choice Sentence Fluency Voice
Advanced ___ Strong controlling idea based on interesting and meaningful exploration of essential question

___ Clearly addresses topic and provides specific and relevant concrete details and/or reasons

___ Shows complexity and freshness of thought

___ Effective, insightful commentary connects concrete detail to essential question

___ Effective beginning, middle, and end; engaging introduction; strong sense of closure

___ A clear, strong guiding question governs entire essay; the writer skillfully emphasizes important ideas

___ Use paragraphing effectively

___ Progresses in a logical order

___ Uses effective cohesive devices (transitions, repetition, pronouns, parallel structure) between and within paragraphs

 

___ Successfully follows assigned format

___ Contains few errors in grammar/usage, punctuation, capitalization, and/or spelling

___ Intentional or clever use of atypical sentence structure

___ Correct pronoun/antecedent agreement and subject/verb agreement; consistent verb tense

___Correct MLA format in nearly all aspects

___ Uses precise and vivid language

___ Effective use of writing techniques such as imagery and figurative language if appropriate

___ Consistently avoids redundancy

___ Contains sentences that are clear and varied in length and structure

___ Variety of sentence beginnings

___ Natural rhythm, cadence, and flow

___ Shows individual perspective; personality comes through

___ Clearly shows an awareness of audience and purpose

___ Writer’s enthusiasm for the topic is evident

___ Effectively uses writing techniques (such as humor, point of view, tone) that evoke a strong emotional response

Proficient ___ Controlling idea based on a meaningful exploration of essential question begins to narrow focus

___ Addresses the topic using relevant details and/or reasons

___ Shows some complexity and/or freshness of thought

___ Strong commentary relates concrete detail to essential question

___ Clear beginning, middle, and end with an effective introduction and conclusion

___ A clear guiding question governs the entire essay; important ideas stand out

___ Uses paragraphing appropriately

___ Generally progresses in a logical order

___ Uses cohesive devices between and within paragraphs

 

___ Accurately follows assigned format

___ May contain errors in grammar/usage, punctuation, capitalization, and/or spelling that are not distracting to the reader

___ Fragment or run-ons are rare (unless stylistic)

___ Very few errors in agreement and tense

___Correct MLA format in a large majority of aspects

___ Uses precise language

___ Uses writing techniques such as imagery and/or figurative language is appropriate

___ Avoids redundancy

___ Contains sentences that are clear and show some variety in length and structure

___ Not all sentences begin with the same pattern

___ Sections of writing have rhythm and flow

___ Shows some individual perspective; personality begins to show

___ Shows an awareness of audience and purpose

___ Writer cares about topic

___ Uses writing techniques (such as humor, point of view, tone) that may evoke an emotional response

Developing ___ Contains some sense of direction, but may lack focus

___ Addresses the topic, but relies on generalities (lists) rather than specifics

___ Limited complexity and/or freshness of thought

___ Weak commentary

___ Evidence of a beginning, middle, and end

___ Guiding question may be addressed, but may not govern the entire essay; some important ideas begin to surface

___ Shows evidence of paragraphing

___ Inconsistency in logical order

___ Inconsistent use of cohesive devices

___ Attempts assigned format

___ Contains errors in grammar/usage, punctuation, capitalization, and/or spelling that may be distracting to the reader

___ Some run-ons and/or sentence fragments

___ Inconsistent subject/verb agreement and/or verb tense

___ Inconsistent compliance with MLA format rules

___ May use imprecise language

___ Attempts to use some writing techniques such as imagery and/or figurative language if appropriate

___ Some obvious redundancy

___ Contains sentences that are generally clear, but lack variety and complexity

___ Some sentences begin the same

___ An occasional section of writing has rhythm and flow

___ May lack individual perspective

___ Shows some awareness of audience and purpose

___ Writer shows limited connection to the topic

___ Attempts to use some writing techniques (humor, point of view, tone) to evoke a response

Emerging ___ Is difficult to follow and lacks focus

___ May address the topic, but lacks details

___ Lacks complexity and freshness of thought

___ Attempts commentary successfully

___ Little or no evidence of a beginning, middle, and/or end

___ Guiding question unclear

___ Little or no evidence of paragraphing

___ Does not progress in a logical order and may digress to unrelated topics

___ Lacks cohesion

 

___ No evidence of format

___ Contains repeated errors in grammar/usage, punctuation, capitalization, and or spelling that are distracting to the reader

___ Numerous run-ons and/or fragments

___ Frequent errors with agreement and/or tense

___ Frequent errors with MLA format

___ Uses imprecise language

___ Shows little or no evidence of writing techniques such as imagery of figurative language

___ Obvious and/or distracting redundancy

___ Contains sentences that lack variety and clarity

___ Most sentences begin the same way

___ Writing is choppy; needs rereading to follow the meaning

___ Lacks individual perspective

___ Shows little or no awareness of audience or purpose

___ Treatment of topic is predictable

___ Shows little or no evidence of writing techniques to evoke a response

No Evidence          

 

 

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