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Lesson 2, The Crucible

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This lesson is a follow up to Hook, The Crucible. It’s another 90 minute one. 30 minutes of this lesson are devoted to a classroom management issue: cell phones, because I teach The Crucible at the beginning of the school year. So if you’re reading this and you’re a teacher, you might want to re-use that 30 minute cell phone lesson at some other point. Or omit it. One more comment: I am using reading questions as part of this lesson — a strategy I am trying to use sparingly. However, last year I found that the narration part at the beginning of The Crucible was challenging for my high school juniors, and reading questions simply helps keep them on track. I would weight the warm up questions based on the essay, “The Great Fear” a lot heavier than the in-class reading questions, because students read this essay for HW and had to do a lot more heavy lifting themselves to answer those questions. More on grading below…

  1. Warm Up: Five recall questions on the essay, “The Great Fear,” read for HW. Students can refer to the essay as they answer the questions but are limited to the 15 minutes. (15 min)

According to the article, what was Senator McCarthy’s underlying motivation for going on a communist witch hunt? (10 points)

What were two actions that could cause an American citizen to be accused of being a communist? (10 points)

What groups were targeted the most by the anti-communist witch hunt? Why were these groups targeted? (10 points)

Summarize the situation involving Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in a few sentences.(1o points)

Was communism a real internal threat to America in the 1950s? (10 points)

2. Collect warm up and instruct students to take out their copy of The Crucible from underneath their chair. Instruct students to work with the person they are sitting next to to read pp. 3-8 and answer the following reading questions. Instruct students to refer to a bookmark with vocabulary definitions as they read. As students are working in pairs, write down the # of their book. (45 min)

  • Draw a small stick-figure sketch of the opening scene. What does it look like when the curtain rises?
  • Describe Reverend Parris in a complete sentence or two (or three) in your own words.
  • What are some things the town of Salem didn’t allow?
  • What does the author say is going to “feed the coming madness”?
  • “In unity still lay the best promise of safety.” Explain this sentence in your own words. What is the speaker trying to say about Salem?
  • Why do you think the Puritans’ view of the forest was so negative?
  • Why couldn’t Massachusetts “kill off the Puritans”? What helped their community succeed?
  • How does the narrator define a theocracy?
  • What was the purpose of this theocracy?
  • A paradox is a contradiction. Why was Salem’s theocracy contradictory or paradoxical? (What was hard to balance?)
  • According to the narrator, in what multiple ways did the witch hunts change the Salem community?
  • List 2-3 questions you have about what you have read so far. (If you don’t have any points of confusion, list 2-3 discussion questions).

I suggest weighting these questions 1 point each.

Give rational for cell phone mini-lesson.

3. Continuing to work in pairs, have students read these sample college level cell phone policies from college syllabi and make a list of consequences that could occur if they violated cell phone policies at the college level. (15 min)

4. Ask students to recall the definition of a “growth mindset.” Explain that applying the principles of mindfulness is a growth mindset approach to refraining from inappropriate cell phone use in class. Project the definition and explanation of mindfulness from Psychology Today and instruct students to take a few notes:

Mindfulness is a state of active, open attention on the present. When you’re mindful, you observe your thoughts and feelings from a distance, without judging them good or bad. Instead of letting your life pass you by, mindfulness means living in the moment and awakening to experience.

The cultivation of this moment-by-moment awareness of our surrounding environment is a practice that enables us to better cope with the difficult thoughts, feelings and sensations that cause us stress and anxiety in everyday life.

Rather than being led by emotions that are usually influenced by negative past experiences and fears of future occurrences, we are able to live with full attention and purpose in the present and deal with challenges in a calm, assertive way. We realize that our thoughts and emotions are transitional and need not define the next moment of our lives, or our potential for happiness and prosperity. This enables us to quickly escape the imprisonment of negative thought patterns and instead focus on positive emotions and increasing self-compassion and compassion for others.

5. Try a few mindfulness exercises as a class and encourage students to do these on their own when they have the urge to plug into their cell phone (15 minutes, #4 & #5)

One-Minute Breathing

  • This exercise can be done anywhere at any time, standing up or sitting down. All you have to do is focus on your breath for just one minute. Start by breathing in and out slowly, holding your breath for a count of six once you’ve inhaled. Then breathe out slowly, letting the breath flow effortlessly out back into the atmosphere.
  • Naturally your mind will try and wander amidst the valleys of its thoughts. But simply notice these thoughts, let them be as they are and return to watching your breath. Purposefully watch your breath with your senses as it enters your body and fills you with life, and then watch it work its way up and out of your body as the energy dissipates into the universe.
  • If you’re someone who thought they’d never be able to meditate, guess what? You’re half way there already! If you enjoyed one minute of this mind-calming exercise, why not try two or three?

Mindful Observation

  • This exercise is simple but incredibly powerful. It is designed to connect us with the beauty of the natural environment, which is easily missed when we’re rushing around in the car or hopping on and off trains on the way to work.
  • Pick something within your immediate environment and focus on watching it for a minute or two. This could be a painting, a photograph, a quote on the wall…
  • Don’t do anything except notice the thing you are looking at. But really notice it. Look at it as if you are seeing it for the first time.
  • Visually explore every aspect of this glorious gift of the space you are in. Allow yourself to be consumed by its presence and possibilities. Allow your soul to connect with its role and purpose in the world. Allow yourself to purposefully notice and just “be.”

Touch Points

  • This exercise is designed to make us appreciate our lives by slowing the pace. This opens the gate to purer awareness and the ability to truly rest in the moment for a while.
  • Think of something that happens every day more than once. Something you take for granted, like opening a door for example. At the very moment you touch the doorknob to open the door, allow yourself to be completely mindful of where you are, how you feel and what you are doing. Similarly, the moment you open your computer to start work, take a moment to appreciate the hands that let you do this, and the brain that will help you use the computer.
  • The cues don’t have to be physical ones. It could be that every time you think something negative you take a mindful moment to release the negative thought, or it could be that every time you smell food you take a mindful moment to rest in the appreciation of having food to eat. Choose a touch point that resonates with you today. Instead of going through the motions on autopilot, stop and stay in the moment for a while and rest in the awareness of this blessed daily activity.

Mindful Listening

  • This exercise is designed to open your ears to sound in a non-judgmental way. So much of what we see and hear on a daily basis is influenced by thoughts of past experiences. Mindful listening helps us leave the past where it is and come into a neutral, present awareness.
  • Take a moment to simply listen to the sounds in your environment. Don’t try and determine the origin or type of sounds you hear, just listen and absorb the experience and let it resonate with your being. If you recognize the sound, then label it with what you know it to be and move on, allowing your ears to latch onto new sounds that come into your awareness.

Fully Experience a Regular Routine

  • The intention of this exercise is to cultivate contentedness in the moment, rather than finding yourself caught up in that familiar feeling of wanting something to end so that you can get on to doing something else. It might even make you enjoy some of those boring daily chores too!
  • Take a regular routine that you find yourself “just doing” without really noticing your actions. For example, when cleaning your house, pay attention to every detail of the activity.
  • Rather than treat this as a regular chore, create an entirely new experience by noticing every aspect of your actions.  Feel and become the motion of sweeping the floor, notice the muscles you use when scrubbing the dishes, observe the formation of dirt on the windows and see if you can create a more efficient way of removing it. Be creative and find new experiences within this familiar routine.
  • Don’t labour through thinking about the finish line, become aware of every step and enjoy each step of progress. Take the activity beyond a routine by merging with it physically, mentally and spiritually.

A Game of Fives

  • In this mindfulness exercise, all you have to do is notice five things in your day that usually go unnoticed and unappreciated. These can be things you hear, smell, feel or see. For example, you might see the walls of your front room every day, you might hear the birds in the tree outside in the morning, you might feel the touch of clothes on your skin as you walk to work, you might smell the flowers in the park on a summer’s afternoon, but are you truly appreciating these things and the connections they have with your life and the world at large?
  • Are you aware of how these things really benefit your life and the lives of others?
  • Do you really know what these things look and sound like?
  • Have you ever stopped to notice their finer, more intricate details?
  • Have you ever thought about what life might be like without these things?
  • Have you ever sat down and thought about how amazing these things are?
  • Let your creative mind explore the wonder, impact and possibilities these usually unnoticed things have on your life. Allow yourself to fall awake into the world for a while and fully experience the environment that encapsulates your daily routine.

 

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